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Reprocessing of Covalent Adaptable Polyamide Networks through Internal Catalysis and Ring-Size Effects
F. Van Lijsebetten, Y. Spiesschaert, J.M. Winne, F.E. Du Prez
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2021
 Abstract  Here, we report the introduction of internally catalyzed amide bonds to obtain covalent adaptable polyamide networks that rely on the dissociation equilibrium between dicarboxamides and imides. While amide bonds are usually considered to be robust and thermally stable, the present study shows that their dynamic character can be activated by a smart choice of available building blocks without the addition of any external catalyst or other additives. Hence, a range of polyamide-based dynamic networks with variable mechanical and viscoelastic properties have been obtained in a systematic study, using a straightforward curing process of dibasic ester and amine compounds. Since the dissociation process involves a cyclic imide formation, the correlation between ring size and the thermomechanical viscosity profile was studied for five- to seven-membered ring intermediates, depending on the chosen dibasic ester monomer. This resulted in a marked temperature response with activation energies in the range of 116–197 kJ mol–1, yielding a sharp transition between elastic and viscous behavior. Moreover, the ease and versatility of this chemistry platform were demonstrated by selecting a variety of amines, resulting in densely cross-linked dynamic networks with Tg values ranging from −20 to 110 °C.


Polyaddition synthesis using alkyne esters for the design of vinylogous urethane vitrimers
Y. Spiesschaert, J. Danneels, N. Van Herck, M. Guerre, G. Acke, J.M. Winne, F.E. Du Prez
Macromolecules 2021, 54, 17, 7931–7942
 Abstract  Vitrimers are a subclass of covalent adaptable networks which introduce reshapeability and recyclability in thermoset materials while maintaining a high degree of chemical resistance and dimensional stability. Vitrimer materials based on vinylogous urethane (VU) chemistry have drawn a lot of attention in this area. Classically, these are obtained by the polycondensation polymerization of acetoacetate and amine monomers. Unfortunately, this also releases water, often leading to porosity defects in the initially obtained non-reprocessed cross-linked materials. Here, we demonstrate that alkyne esters (AE) can be used as alternative building blocks for VU vitrimers by a polyaddition polymerization with amines, leading to water-free formulations and straightforward access to defect-free cured VU vitrimer materials. The bond formation and dynamic bond exchange was also studied by small molecule reactions, further rationalized by a computational (DFT) approach. The resulting water-free VU vitrimers display similar material properties compared to vitrimers based on acetoacetates, although also some differences are seen, which can be related to a minor amide-bond forming side reaction.


Sequence-defined oligoampholytes using hydrolytically stable vinyl sulfonamides: design and UCST behaviour
C. Mertens, R. Aksakal, N. Badi, F.E. Du Prez
Polym. Chem., 2021, 12, 4193-4204
 Abstract  Polyampholytes, widely investigated for their distinct properties, are typically prepared via conventional polymerisation techniques. This results in an ensemble of polymer chains with variation in molecular parameters such as length, ratio of charged groups and monomer order, which could influence their behaviour. Here, uniform oligoampholytes with precisely positioned negatively charged carboxylate and positively charged ammonium side-chains were synthesised using an iterative solid-phase synthesis strategy based on thiolactone chemistry. The amine side-chains were initially introduced via an acrylate, resulting in an amino-functionalised β-thioester that was shown to be susceptible to transesterification and hydrolysis, even under ambient conditions. While increasing the spacer length between the β-thioester and amine functionality could slow down this undesired side-reaction, it could not be completely suppressed. On the other hand, a tertiary amine-bearing vinyl sulfonamide proved to be a viable, hydrolytically stable alternative to introduce this moiety. The resulting uniform oligoampholytes are soluble in water and show UCST-type thermoresponsive behaviour in 85 vol% isopropanol/water mixtures.


Using nickel to fold discrete synthetic macromolecules into single-chain nanoparticles
M.A. Reith, S. Kardas, C. Mertens, M. Fossépré, M. Surin, J. Steinkoenig, F.E. Du Prez
Polym. Chem., 2021, 12, 4924-4933
 Abstract  Macromolecules found in Nature display a precise control over the primary as well as higher ordered architectures. To mimic the folding found in Nature, we herein demonstrate the design and characterization of single-chain nanoparticles that are formed by the folding of sequence-defined macromolecules with metal ions. The study showcases the influence of the loop size of such precision macromolecules on their relative hydrodynamic radius. The sequence-defined structures are fabricated using thiolactone chemistry, where two picolyl moieties are installed forming a valuable ligand system for subsequent metal complexation. Next, metal ions such as Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions are introduced to fold the unimers into sequence-defined single-chain nanoparticles (SD-SCNPs). After proving the successful complexation using a trimer, a systematic study is conducted altering the distance between the respective ligands by incorporating variable numbers of non-functionalized spacer units. Finally, the loop size formation of the SD-SCNPs is evidenced by DOSY measurements. The result indicates that the positioning of the ligands plays a crucial role on the compaction process and, more specifically, on the final size of the SD-SCNP. In addition, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show the effects of the sequence and Ni(II) complexation on the structure and compaction of the SD-SCNPs, and highlight the differences of the nanoparticles’ shape when varying the number of spacer units.


Covalent Adaptable Networks Using β-Amino Esters as Thermally Reversible Building Blocks
C. Taplan, M. Guerre, F.E. Du Prez
J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2021, 143, 24, 9140–9150
 Abstract  In this study, β-amino esters, prepared by the aza-Michael addition of an amine to an acrylate moiety, are investigated as building blocks for the formation of dynamic covalent networks. While such amino esters are usually considered as thermally nondynamic adducts, the kinetic model studies presented here show that dynamic covalent exchange occurs via both dynamic aza-Michael reaction and catalyst-free transesterification. This knowledge is transferred to create β-amino ester-based covalent adaptable networks (CANs) with coexisting dissociative and associative covalent dynamic exchange reactions. The ease, robustness, and versatility of this chemistry are demonstrated by using a variety of readily available multifunctional acrylates and amines. The presented CANs are reprocessed via either a dynamic aza-Michael reaction or a catalyst-free transesterification in the presence of hydroxyl moieties. This results in reprocessable, densely cross-linked materials with a glass transition temperature (Tg) ranging from −60 to 90 °C. Moreover, even for the low Tg materials, a high creep resistance was demonstrated at elevated temperatures up to 80 °C. When additional β-hydroxyl group-containing building blocks are applied during the network design, an enhanced neighboring group participation effect allows reprocessing of materials up to 10 times at 150 °C within 30 min while maintaining their material properties.


Biobased acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives
M.A. Droesbeke, R. Aksakal, A. Simula, J.M. Asua, F.E. Du Prez
Prog. Polym. Sci., 2021, 17, 101396
 Abstract  The ever-increasing regulations within the adhesives industry and the continuous demand for more sustainability, have led to the development of environmentally more suitable alternatives to petroleum-based pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs). This review provides an overview of the current strategies and methods to develop sustainable, acrylic PSAs derived from renewable resources, such as vegetable oil, lignin, carbohydrates and terpenes. Herein, we emphasize some of the key concepts in the literature within the past decades, which paved the way to the current focus of improving the adhesive properties by employing the full array of natural building blocks. In this context, some recent strategies that give tailor-made adhesive properties to PSAs are also discussed, in view of the desired application. With this critical insight on the large set of research efforts in the context of biosourced acrylic PSAs, we aim to provide a guide for new researchers in this highly emerging field.


Assembling Lipoic Acid and Nanoclay into Nacre-Mimetic Nanocomposites
J. Huang, A.A. Wróblewska, J. Steinkoenig, S. Maes, F.E. Du Prez
Macromolecules 2021, 54, 10, 4658–4668
 Abstract  A facile strategy to obtain nacre-mimetic nanocomposite materials is presented. The proposed economically feasible and environmentally friendly process consists in fusing dynamic poly(lipoic acid) and montmorillonite (MTM) via a water evaporation method. Lipoic acid (LA), a naturally occurring molecule, can readily undergo thermal-, UV-, or (water) evaporation-induced dynamic ring-opening polymerization. This monomer has been equipped with various organic and inorganic counter cations, altering the physical properties of both the obtained poly(lipoate)s and the resulting nacre-like nanocomposites. The mechanical performance of the nanocomposites can be accordingly tuned from rigid and brittle to soft and ductile. Importantly, the composites containing triethanolammonium cations show enhanced ductility with an elongation at break up to around 16% when compared to other reported nacre-mimetic nanocomposites with similar MTM content (elongation at break usually below 10%). Moreover, the influence of MTM content on the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites is elucidated. Furthermore, the dynamic nature of the poly(lipoate)s and supramolecular architecture within the composites enables water-assisted self-healing of superficial scratches, as evaluated by optical microscopy, and closed-loop recycling for materials with up to 70 wt % MTM.


Sequence-Encoded Macromolecules with Increased Data Storage Capacity through a Thiol-Epoxy Reaction
M. Soete, C. Mertens, R. Aksakal, N. Badi, F.E. Du Prez
ACS Macro Lett. 2021, 10, 5, 616–622
 Abstract  Sequence-encoded oligo(thioether urethane)s with two different coding monomers per backbone unit were prepared via a solid phase, two-step iterative protocol based on thiolactone chemistry. The first step of the synthetic cycle consists of the thiolactone ring opening with a primary amine, whereby the in situ released thiol is immediately reacted with an epoxide. In the second step, the thiolactone group is reinstalled to initiate the next cycle. This strategy allows to introduce two different coding monomers per synthetic cycle, rendering the resulting macromolecules especially attractive in the area of (macro)molecular data storage because of their increased data storage capacity. Subsequently, the efficiency of the herein reported synthesis route and the applicability of the dual-encoded sequence-defined macromolecules as a potential data storage platform have been demonstrated by unraveling the exact monomer order using tandem mass spectrometry techniques.


Applications of Discrete Synthetic Macromolecules in Life and Materials Science: Recent and Future Trends
R. Aksakal, C. Mertens, M.Soete, N. Badi, F.E. Du Prez
Adv. Sci. 2021, 2004038
 Abstract  In the last decade, the field of sequence‐defined polymers and related ultraprecise, monodisperse synthetic macromolecules has grown exponentially. In the early stage, mainly articles or reviews dedicated to the development of synthetic routes toward their preparation have been published. Nowadays, those synthetic methodologies, combined with the elucidation of the structure–property relationships, allow envisioning many promising applications. Consequently, in the past 3 years, application‐oriented papers based on discrete synthetic macromolecules emerged. Hence, material science applications such as macromolecular data storage and encryption, self‐assembly of discrete structures and foldamers have been the object of many fascinating studies. Moreover, in the area of life sciences, such structures have also been the focus of numerous research studies. Here, it is aimed to highlight these recent applications and to give the reader a critical overview of the future trends in this area of research.


Light-fueled dynamic covalent crosslinking of single polymer chains in non-equilibrium states
D. Kodura, H.A. Houck, F.R. Bloesser, A.S. Goldmann, F.E. Du Prez, H. Frisch, C. Barner-Kowollik
Chem. Sci., 2021, Advance Article
 Abstract  While polymer synthesis proceeds predominantly towards the thermodynamic minimum, living systems operate on the reverse principle – consuming fuel to maintain a non-equilibrium state. Herein, we report the controlled formation of 3D macromolecular architectures based on light-fueled covalent non-equilibrium chemistry. In the presence of green light (525 nm) and a bivalent triazolinedione (TAD) crosslinker, naphthalene-containing polymers can be folded into single chain nanoparticles (SCNPs). At ambient temperature, the cycloaddition product of TAD with naphthalene reverts and the SCNP unfolds into its linear parent polymer. The reported SCNP is the first example of a reversible light triggered folding of single polymer chains and can readily be repeated for several cycles. The folded state of the SCNP can either be preserved through a constant supply of light fuel, kinetic trapping or through a chemical modification that makes the folded state thermodynamically favored. Whereas small molecule bivalent TAD/naphthalene cycloaddition products largely degraded after 3 days in solution, even in the presence of fuel, the SCNP entities were found to remain intact, thereby indicating the light-fueled stabilization of the SCNP to be an inherent feature of the confined macromolecular environment.


Substituent effect on the thermophysical properties and thermal dissociation behaviour of 9-substituted anthracene derivatives
J. Brancart, J. Van Damme, F.E. Du Prez, G. Van Assche
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2021, Advance Article
 Abstract  The chemical structure and location of substituents on anthracene derivatives influence the electron balance of the aromatic system, thus determining the wavelengths at which light is absorbed, which results in the photochemically induced dimerization or monomerization. Here, the thermal dissociation kinetics of 7 photodimers of 9-substituted anthracene derivatives are studied using a combination of spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques in the condensed state and compared to scarce literature data on thermal dissociation of other anthracene derivatives. The length and chemical structure of the substituent chains have a clear impact on the melting temperatures of the anthracene derivatives and corresponding photodimers. The crystallinity of the photodimers and monomers in turn influences the thermal dissociation kinetics. The thermal dissociation behaviour and previously published photochemistry data are related to the electronic effects of the substituents by means of the Hammett parameters. Stronger electron-withdrawing effects result in larger red shifts of the maximum wavelength λmax for the photodimerization of the anthracene derivatives. It is also shown that for the studied substitutions on the 9-position of anthracene, the higher the magnitude of the electronic effect – both electron-donating and electron-withdrawing – the faster the thermal dissociation kinetics and thus the lower the thermal stability.



Surface Modification of (Non)‐Fluorinated Vitrimers through Dynamic Transamination
C.Taplan, M. Guerre, C.N. Bowman, F.E. Du Prez
Macromol. Rapid Commun., 2020, 2000644
 Abstract  Surface modifications are typically permanent in shape and chemistry. Herein, vinylogous urethane (VU) chemistry is presented as an easily accessible and versatile platform for rapid, facile, and reworkable surface modification. It is demonstrated that both physical and chemical post‐modification of permanent, yet dynamic elastic polymer networks are achieved. Surface patterns with high regularity are created, both via a straightforward replication process using a polydimethylsiloxane stamp (resolution ca. 10–100 µm) as well as using thermally activated nano‐imprint lithography (NIL) to form hole, pillar, or line patterns (ca. 300 nm) in elastic VU‐based vitrimers. The tunable, rapid exchange allows patterning at 130 °C in less than 15 min, resulting in an increased water contact angle and surface‐structure induced light reflection. Moreover, it is also demonstrated that the use of a single dynamic covalent chemistry makes it possible to strongly adhere to fluorinated and non‐fluorinated materials based on incompatible matrices.


Internal catalysis for dynamic covalent chemistry applications and polymer science
F. Van Lijsebetten, J.O. Holloway, J.M. Winne, F.E. Du Prez
Chem. Soc. Rev., 2020
 Abstract  Strong covalent chemical bonds that can also be reversed, cleaved or exchanged are the subject of so-called dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC). Applications range from classical protective groups in organic chemistry and cleavable linkers for solid phase synthesis, to more modern applications in dynamic compound libraries and adaptive materials. Interest in dynamic, reversible or responsive chemistries has risen in particular in the last few decades for the design and synthesis of new DCC-based polymer materials. Implementation of DCC in polymers yields materials with unique combinations of properties and in some cases even unprecedented properties for covalent materials, such as self-healing materials, covalent adaptable networks (CANs) and vitrimers. In particular, the incorporation of DCC in polymer materials aims to find a balance between a swift and triggerable reactivity, combined with a high degree of intrinsic robustness and stability. Applying harsh conditions, highly active catalysts or highly reactive bonding groups, as is done in classical DCC, is often not feasible or desirable, as it can damage the polymer's integrity, leading to loss of function and properties. In this context, so-called internally catalysed DCC platforms have started to receive more interest in this area. This approach relies on the relative proximity and orientation of common functional groups, which can influence a chemical exchange reaction in a subtle but significant way...


Biosourced terpenoids for the development of sustainable acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives via emulsion polymerisation
M.A. Droesbeke, A. Simula, J.M. Asuab, F.E. Du Prez
Green Chem., 2020
 Abstract  The increasing regulations and restrictions in favour of a biobased and sustainable community could potentially harm the strong economic position of the polymer industry, which still heavily relyies on crude oil. The adhesive industry, in particular, is looking for more renewable alternatives and more environmentally friendly synthesis routes. In this work, (meth)acrylate derivatives of terpenoids, namely tetrahydrogeraniol, citronellol, menthol and isoborneol are introduced in the synthesis of waterborne pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSA) based on acrylic latexes via emulsion polymerisation. This industrially implemented setting enables the preparation of five different formulations with high biobased content with a renewable carbon content ranging from 70 to 100%. The biobased PSAs are found to be comparable in terms of tack, peel strength and shear resistance to a benchmark petroleum-derived commercial product. They show good adhesion properties on steel, glass and polyethylene surfaces. Moreover, the various formulations displayed different mechanical and adhesion properties, which make them attractive for a wide range of applications.


Analysis of sequence-defined oligomers through Advanced Polymer Chromatography™ – mass spectrometry hyphenation
M-T. Berga, C. Mertens, F.E. Du Prez, T.D. Kühnea, A.Herberga, D.Kuckling
RSC Adv., 2020
 Abstract  In recent years, sequence-defined oligomers have attracted increasing interest in the polymer community and the number of new applications such as macromolecular data storage and encryption is increasing. However, techniques allowing sequence differentiation are still lacking. In this study, the focus is put towards a new strategy allowing structural distinction between sequence-defined oligomers with identical molecular weight and composition, but bearing different sequences. This technique relies on the hyphenation of size exclusion chromatography and mass spectrometry, coupled with ion mobility separation. This approach allows for a quick and easy separation and identification of oligomers with different length and/or sequence.


Influence of the polymer matrix on the viscoelastic behaviour of vitrimers
Y. Spiesschaert, C. Taplan, L. Stricker, M. Guerre, J.M. Winne, F.E. Du Prez
Polym. Chem., 2020
 Abstract  Vitrimer materials are a rapidly growing field of research, in which still many fundamental aspects of material design remain to be explored. In this study, we report a systematic study about the effect of the choice of the matrix on a dynamic covalent bond exchange reaction in a polymer network. In some way, this investigation follows the logic of a ‘solvent effect’ study that is typical for the development of an organic reaction or synthetic method in solution. Thus, this work constitutes a study of matrix effects on the viscoelastic properties of vitrimers, in particular with regard to their stress-relaxation behaviour. For that purpose, the dynamic transamination within vinylogous urethanes (VU) vitrimers, derived from a wide range of different commercially available diols, was chosen as vitrimer chemistry reaction platform. Additionally, the influence of the molecular weight, and thus the cross-link density, was also investigated using two oligomeric diols of different molecular weights. It was found that changing the molecular weight resulted in vitrimers with significantly different activation energies (from 68 to 149 kJ mol−1) and relaxation times (from 7 to 230 min at 140 °C). These remarkable results suggest that both the molecular weight and the nature of the polymer matrix have a large influence on the resulting viscoelastic properties.


Stereocontrolled, multi-functional sequence-defined oligomers through automated synthesis
C. Mertens, M. Soete, M.L. Ślęczkowski, A.R.A. Palmans, E. W. Meijer, N. Badi, F.E. Du Prez
Polym. Chem., 2020
 Abstract  In contrast to biomacromolecules, synthetic polymers generally lack a defined monomer sequence, therefore one of the challenges of polymer chemists these days is gaining more control over the primary structure of synthetic polymers and oligomers. In this work, stereocontrolled sequence-defined oligomers were synthesised using a thiolactone-based platform. Step-wise elongation of the oligomer occurs via ring-opening of the thiolactone, resulting in the formation of stereocenters along the backbone. These initial studies indicate remarkable differences in the strength of non-covalent interactions in isotactic and atactic oligomers. Different side-chain moieties were introduced using alkyl halide building blocks and the synthetic protocol was succesfully optimised and automated. Furthermore, the possible post-synthesis modification of the oligomers was demonstrated using ‘click’ chemistry.


Exploration of the Selectivity and Retention Behavior of Alternative Polyacrylamides in Temperature Responsive Liquid Chromatography
M. Baert, K. Wicht, Z. Hou, R. Szucs, F.E. Du Prez, F. Lynen
Anal. Chem., 2020
 Abstract Temperature responsive liquid chromatography (TRLC) allows for separation of organic solutes in purely aqueous mobile phases whereby retention is controlled through temperature. The vast majority of the work has thus far been performed on poly[N-isopropylacrylamide] (PNIPAAm)-based columns, while the performance of other temperature responsive polymers has rarely been compared under identical conditions. Therefore, in this work, two novel TRLC phases based on poly[N-n-propylacrylamide] (PNNPAAm) and poly[N,N-diethylacrylamide] (PDEAAm) are reported and compared to the state of the art PNIPAAm based column. Optimal comparison is thereby obtained by the use of controlled radical polymerizations, identical molecular weights, and by maximizing carbon loads on the silica supporting material. Analysis of identical test mixtures of homologue series and pharmaceutical samples revealed that PNNPAAm performs in a similar way as PNIPAAm while offering enhanced retention and a shift of the useable temperature range toward lower temperatures. PDEAAm offers a range of novel possibilities as it depicts a different selectivity, allowing for enhanced resolution in TRLC in, for example, coupled column systems. Reduced plate heights of 3 could be obtained on the homemade columns, offering the promise for reasonable column efficiencies in TRLC despite the use of bulky polymers as stationary phases in HPLC.


Shining Light on Poly(ethylene glycol): From Polymer Modification to 3D Laser Printing of Water Erasable Microstructures
H.A. Houck, P. Müller, M. Wegener, C. Barner‐Kowollik, F.E. Du Prez, E. Blasco
Adv. Mater., 2020
 Abstract  The implementation of stimuli‐responsive bonds into 3D network assemblies is a key concept to design adaptive materials that can reshape and degrade. Here, a straightforward but unique photoresist is introduced for the tailored fabrication of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) materials that can be readily erased by water, even without the need for acidic or basic additives. Specifically, a new class of photoresist is developed that operates through the backbone crosslinking of PEG when irradiated in the presence of a bivalent triazolinedione. Hence, macroscopic gels are obtained upon visible light‐emitting diode irradiation (λ > 515 nm) that are stable in organic media but rapidly degrade upon the addition of water. Photoinduced curing is also applicable to multiphoton laser lithography (λ > 700 nm), hence providing access to 3D printed microstructures that vanish when immersed in water at 37 °C. Materials with varying crosslinking densities are accessed by adapting the applied laser writing power, thereby allowing for tunable hydrolytic erasing timescales. A new platform technology is thus presented that enables the crosslinking and 3D laser printing of PEG‐based materials, which can be cleaved and erased in water, and additionally holds potential for the facile modification and backbone degradation of polyether‐containing materials in general.


Introduction to chemistry for covalent adaptable networks
C. Bowman, F. Du Prez, J. Kalow
Polym. Chem., 2020
 Abstract  Christopher Bowman, Filip Du Prez and Julia Kalow introduce the Polymer Chemistry themed collection on chemistry for covalent adaptable networks.


On-Demand Dissoluble Diselenide-Containing Hydrogel
W. Lu, X. Xu, L. Imbernon, J. Zhu, R. Hoogenboom, F.E. Du Prez, X. Pan
Biomac., 2020
 Abstract On-demand dissolution of hydrogels is being increasingly studied for their potential use in burn wound dressing applications. Herein, a dynamic diselenide-containing hydrogel is developed through a very simple one-pot and two-step process starting from the selenol functionalization of a partially hydrolyzed poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) with γ-butyroselenolactone. The hydrogel spontaneously cross-links via an in situ oxidation of the selenol functionalities in air. The gelation process and the final viscoelastic properties of the gel are characterized by rheological experiments. The mechanical properties of those new diselenide-containing hydrogels are easily tuned by varying the concentration of γ-butyroselenolactone. The materials also show good skin adhesion and UV light responsiveness. A unique feature of the hydrogel is its capability to be fully and rapidly dissolved on-demand, via oxidation or reduction of the diselenide cross-links, making them particularly attractive for burn wound dressing applications.


Thermal dissociation of anthracene photodimers in the condensed state: kinetic evaluation and complex phase behaviour
J. Brancart, J. Van Damme, F.E. Du Prez, G. Van Assche
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2020
 Abstract  Thermally and photochemically reversible functional groups, such as photodimers of anthracene derivatives, offer interesting stimuli-responsive behaviour. To evaluate their potential for application in reversible polymer networks, accurate kinetic parameters and knowledge of their thermophysical behaviour are required. Accurate kinetic studies of the thermal dissociation of the photodimers in the condensed state, thus without the influence of solvents on their reactivity, is still lacking. A methodology was set up to accurately evaluate the chemical reaction kinetics and complex phase behaviour during the thermal dissociation of photodimers into their corresponding monomers. Temperature-controlled time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy was used to determine the reaction progress, while non-isothermal DSC measurements were used to study the thermophysical changes, resulting from the thermal dissociation reaction. The thermal dissociation behaviour in the condensed state is more challenging than in the solution state due to the crystallinity of the dimers, stabilizing the dimers and thus slowing down the initial dissociation rates. Distinctly different sets of kinetic parameters were found for the dissociation from the molten and the crystalline state. For experiments performed below the melting temperature of the photodimer, the reaction rate changes abruptly as the dimer is partly dissociated and partly dissolved into the formed monomer...


Double neighbouring group participation for ultrafast exchange in phthalate monoester networks
M. Delahaye, F. Tanini, J.O. Holloway, J.M. Winne, F.E. Du Prez
Polym. Chem., 2020
 Abstract  Phthalate monoesters (PMEs) were recently introduced as a simple dynamic covalent bond for implementation in covalent adaptable networks (CANs), which undergo rapid transesterifications in the absence of catalysts, due to the neighbouring group participation (NGP) of a carboxylic acid moiety. In this work, it is shown that the PME transesterification can be very significantly accelerated by the presence of another neighbouring group on the reactive alcohol moieties. The kinetic effects are demonstrated using a short model study of PMEs with different substituents at the β-carbon position, showing a remarkable acceleration for alcohols containing tertiary amines on the β-carbon. Following the model study, materials were synthesised by a (partial) replacement of the conventionally used diol with a β-amino-diol, leading to the formation of networks with an increased Tg and Young's-modulus, which is rationalised as a result of the formation of an ionic network (COO− and NHR3+). Stress relaxation experiments show a decrease in relaxation times by a factor of 500, compared to similar networks derived from non-amine-substituted hydroxyl monomers. This ultrafast relaxation, enabled by a double NGP, resulted in CANs that show potential to be processed through extrusion while maintaining their overall network connectivity.


Vitrimers: directing chemical reactivity to control material properties
M. Guerre, C. Taplan, J.M. Winne, F.E. Du Prez
Chem. Sci., 2020
 Abstract The development of more sustainable materials with a prolonged useful lifetime is a key requirement for a transition towards a more circular economy. However, polymer materials that are long-lasting and highly durable also tend to have a limited application potential for re-use. This is because such materials derive their durable properties from a high degree of chemical connectivity, resulting in rigid meshes or networks o polymer chains with a high intrinsic resistance to deformation. Once such polymers are fully synthesized, thermal (re)processing becomes hard (or impossible) to achieve without damaging the degree of chemical connectivity, and most recycling options quickly lead to a drop or even loss of material properties. In this context, both academic and industrial researchers have taken a keen interest in materials design that combine high degrees of chemical connectivity with an improved thermal (re)processability, mediated through a dynamic exchange reaction of covalent bonds. In particular vitrimer materials offer a promising concept because they completely maintain their degree of chemical connectivity at all times, yet can show a clear thermally driven plasticity and liquid behavior, enabled through rapid bond rearrangement reactions within the network...


Dynamic Curing Agents for Amine-Hardened Epoxy Vitrimers with Short (Re)processing Times
Y. Spiesschaert, M. Guerre, I. De Baere, W. Van Paepegem, J.M. Winne, F.E. Du Prez
Macromol., 53 (7), 2485-2495, 2020
 Abstract This work presents a straightforward strategy to introduce highly dynamic and adaptable cross-links into common epoxy resin formulations. For this, an oligomeric amine-based curing agent containing vinylogous urethane (VU) bonds was developed. This novel polyfunctional amine curing agent can be used as a drop-in solution for existing epoxy resin technologies, resulting in transparent, rigid, and, at the same time, highly reprocessable catalyst-free epoxy vitrimers. The oligomeric VU-curing agents are prepolymerized via a straightforward condensation reaction between acetoacetates extended with different classical amine monomers and epoxy hardeners. It is found that vitrimer properties can be readily introduced into these epoxy formulations by converting <50 mol % of the hardener’s amine functionalities into dynamic vinylogous urethane bonds. In this way, epoxy vitrimers can be obtained with material properties comparable to ones of the VU-free epoxy formulations. In addition, remarkably short processing times are observed in the absence of any catalyst, and the material displayed very short stress relaxation times and good recyclability, actually representing the most performant VU-based vitrimers so far. Furthermore, a proof of concept for its use in obtaining glass-fiber-reinforced epoxy composites is also presented.


From Sequence‐Defined Macromolecules to Macromolecular Pin Codes
J.O. Holloway, F. Van Lijsebetten, N. Badi, H.A. Houck, F.E. Du Prez
Adv. Sci., 1903698, 2020
 Abstract Dynamic sequence‐defined oligomers carrying a chemically written pin code are obtained through a strategy combining multicomponent reactions with the thermoreversible addition of 1,2,4‐triazoline‐3,5‐diones (TADs) to indole substrates. The precision oligomers are specifically designed to be encrypted upon heating as a result of the random reshuffling of the TAD‐indole covalent bonds within the backbone, thereby resulting in the scrambling of the encoded information. The encrypted pin code can eventually be decrypted following a second heating step that enables the macromolecular pin code to be deciphered using 1D electrospray ionization‐mass spectrometry (ESI‐MS). The herein introduced concept of encryption/decryption represents a key advancement compared with current strategies that typically use uncontrolled degradation to erase and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to analyze, decipher, and read‐out chemically encrypted information. Additionally, the synthesized macromolecules are coated onto a high‐value polymer material, which demonstrates their potential application as coded product tags for anti‐counterfeiting purposes.


Mesoporous TiO2 from poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-b-polystyrene block copolymers for long-term acetaldehyde photodegradation
J. Billet, S. Vandewalle, M. Meire, N. Blommaerts, P. Lommens, S. Verbruggen, K. De Buysser,
F.E. Du Prez, I. Van Driessche
J. Mater. Sci., 55, 1933-1945, 2020
 Abstract Although already some mesoporous (2–50 nm) sol–gel TiO2 synthesis strategies exist, no pore size control beyond the 12 nm range is possible without using specialized organic structure-directing agents synthetized via controlled anionic/radical polymerizations. Here, we present the use of reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization as a straightforward and industrial applicable alternative to the existing controlled polymerization methods for structure-directing agent synthesis. Poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-block-polystyrene (PDMA-b-PS) block copolymer, synthesized via RAFT, was chosen as structure-directing agent for the formation of the mesoporous TiO2. Crack-free thin layers TiO2 with tunable pores from 8 to 45 nm could be acquired. For the first time, in a detailed and systematic approach, the influence of the block size and dispersity of the block copolymer is experimentally screened for their influence on the final meso-TiO2 layers. As expected, the mesoporous TiO2 pore sizes showed a clear correlation to the polystyrene block size and the dispersity of the PDMA-b-PS block copolymer. Surprisingly, the dispersity of the polymer was shown not to be affecting the standard deviation of the pores...


Fast processing of highly crosslinked, low-viscosity vitrimers
C. Taplan, M. Guerre, J.M. Winne, F.E. Du Prez
Mater. Horiz., 7, 104-110, 2020
 Abstract Here we describe a rational approach to go beyond the current processability limits of vitrimer materials, with a demonstration of low-viscosity fast processing of highly crosslinked permanent networks. Vitrimers are a recently introduced class of polymer networks with a unique glass-like viscoelastic behavior, in which bond exchange reactions govern the macroscopic material flow. The restricted chain mobility, only enabled by chemical exchanges, typically limits the use of continuous processing techniques, such as extrusion or injection moulding. Herein, we outline a straightforward materials design approach, taking into account both the effect of minor additives on the chemistry of bond rearrangement as well as the macromolecular architecture of the vitrimeric network. These combined effects are demonstrated to work in an additive fashion, culminating in stress relaxation times below 1 s at 150 °C. The observed rapid bond exchanges in permanent networks result in an unprecedented control of the polymer material behavior, where the material flow is still dominated by chemical exchanges, but only marginally limited by the chemical exchange rate, overcoming the challenges encountered so far in continuous processing of highly crosslinked vitrimeric systems.



  • Molecular access to multi-dimensionally encoded information, J. Steinkoenig, R. Aksakal, F.E. Du Prez, Eur. Polym. J., 120, 109260, 2019
  • Covalent Adaptable Networks with Tunable Exchange Rates Based on Reversible Thiol–yne Cross‐Linking, N. Van Herck, D. Maes, K. Unal, M. Guerre, J. M. Winne, F.E. Du Prez, Angew. Chem., DOI: 10.1002/anie.201912902, 2019
  • Dynamic Covalent Chemistry in Polymer Networks: A Mechanistic Perspective, J.M. Winne, L. Leibler, F.E. Du Prez, Polym. Chem., 10, 6091-6108, 2019
  • Internal Catalysis in Covalent Adaptable Networks: Phthalate Monoester Transesterification As a Versatile Dynamic Cross-Linking Chemistry, M. Delahaye, J.M. Winne, F.E. Du Prez, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 141, 15277-15287, 2019
  • Digging into the Sequential Space of Thiolactone Precision Polymers: A Combinatorial Strategy to Identify Functional Domains, S. Celasun, D. Remmler, T. Schwaar,M.G. Weller, F.E. Du Prez, H.G. Börner, Hans., Angew. Chem., 58 (7), 1960-1964, 2019
  • Urethane polythioether self-crosslinking resins, B. Hendriks, O. van den Berg, F.E. Du Prez, Progress in Organic Coatings, 136, 2019
  • Full and Partial Amidation of Poly(methyl acrylate) as Basis for Functional Polyacrylamide (Co)Polymers, J. Van Guyse, J. Verjans, S. Vandewalle, K. De Bruycker, F.E. Du Prez, R. Hoogenboom, Macromol., 52 (14), 5102-5109, 2019
  • Light-Stabilised Dynamic Materials, H.A. Houck, E. Blasco, F.E. Du Prez, C. Barner-Kowollik,, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 141, 12329-12337, 2019
  • Direct Comparison of Solution and Solid Phase Synthesis of Sequence-Defined Macromolecules, J.O. Holloway, K.S. Wetzel, S. Martens, F.E. Du Prez, M.A. R. Meier, Polym. Chem., 10, 3859-3867, 2019
  • Multi-olefin containing polyethers and triazolinediones: a powerful alliance, T. Johann, H.A. Houck, T. Dinh, U. Kemmer-Jonas, F.E. Du Prez, H. Frey, Polym. Chem., 10, 4699-4708, 2019
  • Sustainable synthesis of renewable terpenoid-based (meth)acrylates using the CHEM21 green metrics toolkit, M.A. Droesbeke, F.E. Du Prez, ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 7, 11633-11639, 2019
  • Filler reinforced polydimethylsiloxane-based vitrimers, Y. Spiesschaert, M. Guerre, L. Imbernon, J.M. Winne, F.E. Du Prez, Polymer, 172, 239-246, 2019
  • TAD Click Chemistry on Aliphatic Polycarbonates: A First Step Toward Tailor-Made Materials, A. Baroni, L. Vlaminck, L. Mespouille, F.E. Du Prez, N. Delbosc, B. Blankert, Macromol. Rapid Commun., 40, 1800743, 2019
  • Conformational influence of fluorinated building blocks on the physical properties of polyesters, S. Lingier, R. Szpera, B. Goderis, B. Linclau, F.E. Du Prez, Polymer, 164, 134-141, 2019
  • A novel donor-π-acceptor anthracene monomer: Towards faster and milder reversible dimerization, J. Van Damme, O. van den Berg, J. Brancart, G. Van Assche, F.E. Du Prez, Tetrahedron, 75, 912-920, 2019
  • Thiolactone Chemistry for the Synthesis of Functional Silicone-Based Amphiphilic Co-Networks, K. De Bruycker, C. Mertens, F.E. Du Prez, J. Polym. Sci. A, 57(3), 322-333, 2019
  • Thermoplastic polyacetals: Chemistry from the past for a sustainable future?, A. Hufendiek, S. Lingier, F.E. Du Prez, Polym. Chem., 10(1), 9-33, 2019


  • Polycycloacetals via Polytransacetalization of Diglycerol Bisacetonide, A. Hufendiek, S. Lingier, P. Espeel, S. De Wildeman, F.E. Du Prez, Polym. Chem., 9, 4789-4797 , 2018
  • In situ crosslinked nanofibers by aqueous electrospinning of selenol-functionalized poly(2-oxazoline)s, Y. Li, M. Vergaelen, X. Pan, F.E. Du Prez, R. Hoogenboom, K. De Clerck, Macromolecules, 51, 6149−6156, 2018
  • Double-modified Glycopolymers from Thiolactones to Modulate Lectin Selectivity and Affinity, L.E. Wilkins, N. Badi, F.E. Du Prez, M.I. Gibson, ACS Macro Lett., 7, 1498−1502, 2018
  • Automated Synthesis Protocol of Sequence-Defined Oligo-Urethane-Amides Using Thiolactone Chemistry, J.O. Holloway, C. Mertens, F.E. Du Prez,N. Badi, Macromol. Rapid Commun., 40, 1800685, 2018
  • Multifunctional sequence-defined macromolecules for chemical data storage, S. Martens, A. Landuyt, P. Espeel, B. Devreese, P. Dawyndt, F.E. Du Prez, Nat.Commun., 9, 4451, 2018
  • Polycaprolactone-b-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) nanoparticles : synthesis and temperature induced coacervation behavior, S. Vandewalle, M. Van De Walle, S. Chattopadhyay, F.E. Du Prez, Eur. Polym. J., 98, 468-474, 2018
  • Fluorinated vitrimer elastomers with a dual temperature response, M. Guerre, C. Taplan, R. Nicolay, J. Winne, F.E. Du Prez, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 140, 13272-13284, 2018
  • Dynamic Diselenide-Containing Polyesters from Alcoholysis/Oxidation of γ-Butyroselenolactone, C. Wang, X. An, M. Pang, Z. Zhang, X. Zhu, J. Zhu, F.E. Du Prez, X. Pan, Polym. Chem., 9, 4044-4051, 2018
  • Anthracene-based polyurethane networks: Tunable thermal degradation, photochemical cure and stress-relaxation, J. Van Damme, O. van den Berg, J. Brancart, G. Van Assche, F.E. Du Prez, Eur.Polym.J., 105, 412-420, 2018
  • Fast Healing of Polyurethane Thermosets Using Reversible Triazolinedione Chemistry and Shape-Memory, N. Van Herck, F.E. Du Prez, Macromolecules, 51, 3405−3414, 2018
  • Anthracene‐Based Colloidal Polymer Nanoparticles: Their Photochemical Ligation and Waterborne Coating Applications, S. Chattopadhyay,J. Van Damme, O. van den Berg, F.E. Du Prez, Part. Part. Syst. Charact., 35, 1800030, 2018
  • Bifunctionalized redox-responsive layers prepared from a thiolactone copolymer, C. Chattaway, S. Belbekhouche,F.E. Du Prez, K. Glinel, S. Madeleine Demoustier-Champagne, Langmuir, 34, 5234–5244, 2018
  • Tunable Blocking Agents for Temperature-Controlled Triazolinedione-Based Cross-Linking Reactions, H.A. Houck, K. De Bruycker, C. Barner-Kowollik, J.M. Winne,F.E. Du Prez, Macromolecules, 51, 3156−3164, 2018
  • Enhancing the possibilities of comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography through hyphenation of purely aqueous temperature-responsive and reversed-phase liquid chromatography, M. Baert, S.Martens, G. Desmet, A.J. de Villiers, F.E. Du Prez, F. Lynen, Anal. Chem., 90 , 4961-4967, 2018
  • Anthracene-containing polymers toward high-end applications, J. Van Damme, F.E. Du Prez, Prog. Polym. Sci., 82, 92–119, 2018
  • Vinylogous Urea Vitrimers and Their Application in Fiber Reinforced Composites, W. Denissen, I. De Baere, W. Van Paepegem, L. Leibler, J.M. Winne, F.E. Du Prez, Macromolecules, 51(5), 2054-2064, 2018
  • Ultrafast Tailoring of Carbon Surfaces via Electrochemically Attached Triazolinediones, W. Laure, K. De Bruycker, P. Espeel, D. Fournier, P. Woisel, F.E. Du Prez, J. Lyskawa, Langmuir, 34(7), 2397–2402, 2018
  • Structurally diverse polymers from norbornene and thiolactone containing building blocks, D. Frank, P. Espeel, N.Badi, F.E. Du Prez, Eur. Polym. J., 98, 246-253, 2018
  • A Thiolactone Strategy for Straightforward Synthesis of Disulfide-Linked Side-Chain-to-Tail Cyclic Peptides Featuring an N-Terminal Modification Handle, D. Van Lysebetten, S. Felissati, E. Antonatou, L. Carrette, P. Espeel, E. Foquet, F.E. Du Prez, A. Madder, ChemBioChem., 19(6), 641-646, 2018


  • Tyrosine-Triazolinedione Bioconjugation as Site-Selective Protein Modification Starting from RAFT-Derived Polymers, S. Vandewalle, R. De Coen, B.G. De Geest, F.E. Du Prez, ACS Macro Lett., 6 (12), 1368–1372, 2017
  • Controlling thermal reactivity with different colors of light, H.A. Houck,F.E. Du Prez, C. Barner-Kowollik, Nat. Com., DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-02022-0, 2017
  • High-Throughput Platform for Synthesis of Melamine-Formaldehyde Microcapsules, S. Çakir, E. Bauters, G. Rivero,T. Parasote, J. Paul, F.E. Du Prez, ACS Comb. Sci., 19, 447−454, 2017
  • Precisely Alternating Functionalized Polyampholytes Prepared in a Single Pot from Sustainable Thiolactone Building Blocks, C. Resetco, D. Frank, N. U. Kaya, N. Badi, F.E. Du Prez, ACS Macrolett., 6, 277−280, 2017
  • Rigid polyurethanes, polyesters and polycarbonates from renewable ketal monomers, S. Lingier, Y. Spiesschaert, B. Dhanis, S. De Wildeman, F.E. Du Prez, Macromolecules, 50, 5346–5352, 2017
  • Combining Two Methods of Sequence Definition in a Convergent Approach: Scalable Synthesis of Highly Defined, Multifunctionalized Macromolecules, S. C. Solleder, S.P. Martens, P. Espeel, F.E. Du Prez, M.A.R. Meier, Chem. Eur. J., 23, 1–5, 2017
  • Polyamides based on a partially bio-based spirodiamine, A. Wroblewska, S. Lingier, J. Noordijk, F.E. Du Prez, S. De Wildeman, K. Bernaerts, Eur. Polym. J., 96, 221-231, 2017
  • Preparation of Janus nanoparticles from block copolymer thin films using triazolinedione chemistry, E. Poggi, W. Ouvry, B. Ernould, J.-P. Bourgeois, S. Chattopadhyay, F.E. Du Prez, J.-F. Gohy, RSC Adv., 7, 37048–37054, 2017
  • Click and click-inspired chemistry for the design of sequence-controlled polymers, S. Martens, J.O. Holloway, F.E. Du Prez, Macromol. Rapid Commun., 38, 1700469, 2017
  • Triazolinedione-“clicked” poly(phosphoester)s: Systematic adjustment of thermal properties, G. Becke, L. Vlaminck, M.M. Velencoso, F.E. Du Prez, F.R. Wurm, Polym. Chem., 8, 4074–4078, 2017
  • Thiol-ene chemistry for polymer coatings and surface modification – building in sustainability and performance, C. Resetco, B. Hendriks, N. Badi, F.E. Du Prez, Mat. Horizons, 4, 1041-1053, 2017
  • Lignin inspired phenolic polyethers synthesized via ADMET: Systematic structure-property investigation, L. Vlaminck, S. Lingier, A. Hufendiek, F.E. Du Prez, Eur. Polym. J., 95, 503-513, 2017
  • PEGylated precision segments based on sequence-defined thiolactone oligomers, S. Celasu, F.E. Du Prez, H.G. Börner, Macromol. Rapid Commun., 38, 1700688, 2017
  • Polydimethylsiloxane quenchable vitrimers, T. Stukenbroeker, W. Wang, J. Winne, F.E. Du Prez, R. Nicolaÿ, L. Leibler, Polym. Chem., 8, 6590-6593, 2017
  • Sustainable synthesis routes towards urazole compounds, L. Vlaminck, B. Van de Voorde, F.E. Du Prez, Green Chem., 19, 5659-5664, 2017
  • Tailored modification of thioacrylates in a versatile, sequence-defined procedure, J.O. Holloway, S. Aksakal, F.E. Du Prez, C.R. Becer, Macromol. Rapid Commun., 38, 1700500, 2017
  • Covalent fluorination strategies for the surface modification of polydienes, K. De Bruycker, M. Delahaye, P. Cools, J.M. Winne, F.E. Du Prez, Macromol. Rapid Commun., 38, 1700122, 2017
  • Poly(thioether) Vitrimers via Transalkylation of Trialkylsulfonium Salts, B. Hendriks, J. Waelkens,, J.M. Winne, F.E. Du Prez, ACS Macro Lett., 6, 930−934, 2017
  • Chemical control of the viscoelastic properties of vinylogous urethane vitrimers, W. Denissen, M. Droesbeke, R. Nicolaÿ, L. Leibler, J. Winne, F.E. Du Prez, Nat. Commun., 8, 14857-14863, 2017
  • Design of a thermally controlled sequence of triazolinedione-based click and transclick reactions, H.A. Houck, K. De Bruycker, S. Billiet, B. Dhanis, H. Goossens, S. Catak, V. Van Speybroeck, J.M. Winne, F.E. Du Prez, Chem. Sci., 8, 3098–3108, 2017
  • Multifunctional Dendrimer Formation Using Thiolactone Chemistry, N. Uğur Kaya, F.E. Du Prez, N. Badi, , Macromol. Chem. Phys., 218, 1600575, 2017
  • Selenolactone as Building Block towards Dynamic Diselenide Containing Polymer Architectures with Controllable Topology, X. Pan, F. Driessen, X. Zhu, F.E. Du Prez, ACS Macrolett., 6, 89−92, 2017
  • Thiol-Michael Addition in Polar Aprotic Solvents: Nucleophilic Initiation or Base Catalysis?, G.B. Desmet, M.K. Sabbe, D.R. D’hooge, P. Espeel, S. Celasun, G.B. Marin, F.E. Du Prez, M-F. Reyniers, Polym. Chem., 8, 1341-1352, 2017
  • Protected Thiol Strategies in Macromolecular Design, F. Goethals, D. Frank, F.E. Du Prez, Prog. Polym. Sci., 64, 76–113, 2017
  • Immobilization of 2-deoxy-D-ribose-5-phosphate aldolase in polymeric thin films via the Langmuir-Schaefer technique, S. Reinicke, H.C. Rees, P. Espeel, N. Vanparijs, C. Bisterfeld, M. Dick, R.R. Rosencrantz, G. Brezesinski, B.G. De Geest, F.E. Du Prez, J. Pietruszka, A. Böker, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 9, 8317-8326, 2017
  • Easy access to triazolinedione-endcapped peptides for chemical ligation, P. Wilke, T. Kunde, S. Chattopadhyay, N. ten Brummelhuis, F.E. Du Prez, H.G. Börner, Chem. Comm., 53, 593-596, 2017
  • UV-cured multifunctional coating resins prepared from renewable thiolactone derivatives, C.Resetco, T. Dikić, T. Verbrugge, F.E. Du Prez, Prog. Org. Coatings, 107, 75-82, 2017
  • Biodegradable polymer networks by the combination of oleyl-functionalized poly(-caprolactone) and TAD chemistry, M. Basko, M. Bednarek, L. Vlaminck, F.E. Du Prez, Eur. Polym. J., 89, 230–240, 2017
  • Anthracene-based Thiol-ene Networks with Thermo-Degradable and Photo-Reversible properties J. Van Damme, O. van den Berg, J. Brancart, L. Vlaminck, C. Huyck, G. Van Assche, B. Van Mele, F.E. Du Prez, Macromolecules, 50, 1930-1938, 2017
  • Responsive thiolactone-derived N-substituted poly(urethane-amide)s, P. Espeel, S. Celasun, P.S. Omurtag, S. Martens, F.E. Du Prez, Macrom. Rapid Comm., 38, 1600783, 2017
  • Acrylate-based coatings to protect lead substrates, M. De Keersmaecker, T. Haufmann, O. van den Berg, S. Vandewalle, T. Muselle, K. Verbeken, A. Hubin, F.E. Du Prez, A. Adriaens, Electrochimica Acta, 229, 8–2, 2017
  • Reversible TAD chemistry as a convenient tool for the design of (re)processable PCL-based shape-memory materials, T. Defize, R. Riva, J.-M. Thomassin, M. Alexandre, N. Van Herck, F.E. Du Prez, C. Jérôm, Macromol. Rapid Comm., 38, 1600517, 2017


  • Melamine-formaldehyde microcapsules: micro- and nanostructural characterization with electron microscopy, H. Heidari, G. Rivero, H. Idrissi, D. Ramachandran, S. Cakir, R. Egoavil, M. Kurttepeli, A.C. Crabbé, T. Hauffman, H. Terryn, F.E. Du Prez, D. Schryvers, Microscopy and microanalysis, 22, 1222-1232, 2016
  • Quantitative First Principles Kinetic Modeling of the Aza-Michael Addition to Acrylates in Polar Aprotic Solvents, G. Desmet, D. D'hooge, P. Omurtag, P. Espeel, G. Marin, F.E. Du Prez, M-F. Reyniers, J. Org. Chem., 81, 12291-12302, 2016
  • Reversible TAD chemistry as a convenient tool for the design of (re)processable PCL-based shape-memory materials, T. Defize, R. Riva, J-M Thomassin, M. Alexandre, N. Van Herck, F.E. Du Prez, C. Jérôm, Macromol. Rapid Comm., accepted, 2016
  • Library of thiolactone building blocks with potential in sustainable functional coatings, D. Frank, P. Espeel, S. Claessens, E. Mes, F.E. Du Prez, Tetrahedron, 72, 6616-6625, 2016
  • High molecular weight poly(cycloacetals) towards processable polymer materials, S. Lingier, S. Nevejans, P. Espeel, S. De Wildeman, F.E. Du Prez, Polymer, 103, 98-103, 2016
  • One-pot automated synthesis of quasi triblock copolymers for self-healing physically crosslinked hydrogels, L. Voorhaar, B. De Meyer, F.E. Du Prez, R. Hoogenboom, Macromol. Rapid Commun., 37, 1682-1688, 2016
  • Protected Thiol Strategies in Macromolecular Design, F. Goethals, D. Frank, F. Du Prez, Prog. Polym. Sci. , DOI: 10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2016.09.003, 2016
  • Squaric ester amides as hydrolysis-resistant functional groups for protein-conjugation of RAFT-derived polymers, Z. Zhang, N. Vanparijs, S. Vandewalle, F. E. Du Prez, L. Nuhn, B.G. De Geest, Chemcomm., 7, 7242-7248, 2016
  • Click reactive microgels as a strategy towards chemically injectable hydrogels, R. Absil, S. Çakir, S. Gabriele, P. Dubois, C. Barner-Kowollik, F.E. Du Prez, L. Mespouille, Polym. Chem., 7, 6752-6760, 2016
  • ADMET and TAD Chemistry: A Sustainable Alliance, L. Vlaminck, K. De Bruycker, O. Türünç, F.E. Du Prez, Polym. Chem., 7, 5655 – 5663, 2016
  • Automated synthesis of monodisperse oligomers, featuring sequence control and tailored functionalization, S. Martens, J. Van den Begin, A. Madder, F.E. Du Prez, P. Espeel, JACS, 138, 14182-14185, 2016
  • The microstructure of capsule containing self-healing materials: A micro-computed tomography study, J. Van Stappen, T. Bultreys, F.A. Gilabert, X.K.D. Hillewaere, D. Garoz Gómez, K. Van Tittelboom, J. Dhaene, N. De Belie, W. Van Paepegem, F.E. Du Prez, V. Cnudde, Mat. Charact., 119, 99-109, 2016
  • Thiolactone-based Polymers for Formaldehyde Scavenging Coatings, C. Resetco, D. Frank, T. Dikić, S. Claessens, T. Verbrugge, F.E. Du Prez, Eur. Polym. J., 82, 166–174, 2016
  • One-pot Modular Synthesis of Functionalized RAFT agents derived from a single Thiolactone Precursor, S. Martens, F. Driessen, S. Wallyn, O. Türünç, F.E. Du Prez, P. Espeel, ACS Macro Lett., 5, 942−945, 2016
  • Macromolecular Coupling in seconds of Triazolinedione End-functionalized Polymers prepared by RAFT Polymerization, S. Vandewalle, S. Billiet, F. Driessen, F.E. Du Prez, ACS Macro Lett., 5, 766-771, 2016
  • Simple design of monodisperse chemically crosslinked plant oil nanoparticles by triazolinedione-ene chemistry, S. Chattopadhyay, F.E. Du Prez, Eur. Polym. J., 81, 77–85, 2016
  • Double Modification of Polymer End Groups through Thiolactone Chemistry, F. Driessen, S. Martens, B. De Meyer, F.E. Du Prez, P. Espeel, Macromol. Rapid Comm., 37, 947-951, 2016
  • Synthesis and evaluation of 9-substituted anthracenes with potential in reversible polymer systems, J. Van Damme, L. Vlaminck, G. Van Assche, B. Van Mele, O. van den Berg, F.E. Du Prez, Tetrahedron, 72, 4303-4311, 2016
  • Triazolinediones as highly enabling synthetic tools, K. De Bruycker, S. Billiet, H.A. Houck, S. Chattopadhyay, J.M. Winne, F.E. Du Prez, Chem. Rev., 116, 3919−3974, 2016
  • A Biomass Approach toward Robust, Sustainable Multiple Shape-Memory Materials, Z. Wang, Y. Zhang, L. Yuan, J. Hayat, N. Trenor, M. Lamm, L. Vlaminck, S. Billiet, F.E. Du Prez, Z. Wang, C. Tang, ACS Macro Lett., 5, 602-606, 2016
  • Comparison of metal free polymer-dye conjugation strategies in protic solvents, J. Gaitzsch, M. Delahaye, A. Poma, F.E. Du Prez, G. Battaglia, Polym. Chem., 7, 3046 - 3055, 2016
  • Thiolactone Chemistry and Copper-mediated CRP for the Development of well-defined Amphiphilic Dispersing Agents, F. Driessen, R. Herckens, P. Espeel, F.E. Du Prez, Polym. Chem., 7, 1632-1641, 2016
  • Tunable temperature responsive liquid chromatography through thiolactone-based immobilization of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), A.J. Satti, P. Espeel, S. Martens, T. Van Hoeylandt, F.E. Du Prez, F. Lynen, J. Chrom. A., 1426, 126–132, 2016
  • Vitrimers: permanent organic networks with glass-like fluidity, W. Denissen, J.M. Winne, F.E. Du Prez, Chem. Sci., 7, 30-38, 2016


  • One-pot double modification of polymers based on thiolacton chemistry, P. Espeel, F.E. Du Prez,Adv. Polym. Sci., 269, 105-132, 2015
  • Metal−Organic Frameworks Encapsulated in Photocleavable Capsules for UV-Light Triggered Catalysis, W.P.R. Deleu, G. Rivero, R.F.A. Teixeira, F.E. Du Prez, D.E. De Vos, Chem. Mater., 27, 5495−5502, 2015
  • Rewritable polymer brush micropatterns grafted by triazolinedione click chemistry, O. Roling, K. De Bruycker, B. Vonhören, L. Stricker, M. Körsgen, H.F. Arlinghaus, B-J Ravoo, F.E. Du Prez, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 54, 1-5, 2015
  • Renewable thermoplastic polyurethanes containing rigid spiroacetal moieties, S. Lingier, P. Espeel, S. Suarez Suarez, O. Türünç, S. De Wildeman, F.E. Du Prez, Eur. Polym. J., 70, 232–239, 2015
  • The use of triazolinedione click chemistry for tuning the mechanical properties of electrospun SBS-fibers, S. van der Heijden, K. De Bruycker, R. Simal, F.E. Du Prez, K. De Clerck, Macromol., 48, 6474–6481, 2015
  • Computational Study and Kinetic Analysis of the Aminolysis of Thiolactones, G. Desmet, D.R. D’hooge, G.B. Marin, F.E. Du Prez, P. Espeel, M.-F. Reyniers, J. Org. Chem, 80,  8520–8529 , 2015
  • Poly(thiolactone) Homo- and Copolymers from Maleimide Thiolactone: Synthesis and Functionalization, T. Rudolph, P. Espeel, F.E. Du Prez, F.H. Schacher, Polym. Chem., 6, 4240-4251, 2015
  • Sustainable Thermoplastic Elastomers Derived from Plant Oil and Their "Click-Coupling" via TAD Chemistry, Z. Wang, L. Yuan, N.M. Trenor, L. Vlaminck, S. Billiet, A. Sarkar, F.E. Du Prez, M. Stefik, C. Tang, Green Chemistry, 17, 3806-3818, 2015
  • Precision Multisegmented Macromolecular Lineups: A Display of Unique Control over Backbone Structure and Functionality, F. Driessen, F.E. Du Prez, P. Espeel, ACS Macro lett., 4, 616−619, 2015
  • "Click"-Inspired Chemistry in Macromolecular Science: Matching Recent Progress and User Expectations, P. Espeel, F.E. Du Prez, Macromol., 48, 2-14, 2015
  • One-pot multi-step reactions based on thiolactone chemistry: A powerful synthetic tool in polymer science, P. Espeel, F.E. Du Prez, Eur. Polym. J., 62, 247–272, 2015
  • Fifteen Chemistries for Autonomous Extrinsic Self-Healing Polymers and Composites, X.K.D. Hillewaere, F.E. Du Prez, Prog. Polym. Sci., 49–50, 121–153, 2015
  • Efficient microencapsulation of a liquid isocyanate with in situ shell functionalization, L.-T.T. Nguyen, X.K.D. Hillewaere, R.F.A. Teixeira, O. van den Berg, F.E. Du Prez, Polym. Chem., 6, 1159 – 1170, 2015
  • From plant oils to plant foils: Straightforward functionalization and crosslinking of natural plant oils with triazolinediones, O. Türünç, S. Billiet, K. De Bruycker, S. Ouardad, J. Winne, F.E. Du Prez, Eur. Polym. J., 65, 286–297, 2015
  • A Shape-Recovery Polymer Coating for the Corrosion Protection of Metallic Surfaces, A. Lutz, O. van den Berg, J. Van Damme, K. Verheyen, E. Bauters, I. De Graeve, F.E. Du Prez, H. Terryn, Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 7, 175-183, 2015
  • Vinylogous urethane vitrimers, W. Denissen, G. Rivero, R. Nicolaÿ, L. Leibler, J. Winne, F.E. Du Prez, Adv. Funct. Mat., 25, 2451-2457, 2015
  • Ultrafast layer-by-layer assembly of thin organic films based on triazolinedione click chemistry, B. Vonhören, O. Roling, K. De Bruycker, R. Calvo, F.E. Du Prez, BJ Ravoo, ACS Macro Lett.,4, 331−334, 2015
  • Thermoresponsive hyperbranched glycopolymers: Synthesis, characterization and lectin interaction studies, S. Vandewalle, S. Wallyn, S. Chattopadhyay, R. Becer, F.E. Du Prez, Eur. Polym. J., 69, 490–498, 2015
  • In-depth numerical analysis of the TDCB specimen for characterization of self-healing polymers, D. Garoz Gómez, F.A. Gilabert, E. Tsangouri, D. Van Hemelrijck, X.E. Hillewaere, F.E. Du Prez, W. Van Paepegem, Int. J. Solids Struct., 64–65, 145-154, 2015


  • Polythiolactone-Based Redox-Responsive Layers for the Reversible Release of Functional Molecules, S. Belbekhouche, S. Reinicke, P. Espeel, F.E. Du Prez, P. Eloy, C. Dupont-Gillain, A.M. Jonas, S. Demoustier-Champagne, K. Glinel,Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 6, 22457−22466, 2014
  • Microencapsulation of Active Ingredients Using PDMS as Shell Material, R.F.A. Teixeira, O. van den Berg, L.-T.T. Nguyen, K. Fehér, F.E. Du Prez, Macromol., 47, 8231-8237, 2014
  • Triazolinediones enable ultrafast and reversible click chemistry for the design of dynamic polymer systems, S. Billiet, K. De Bruycker, F. Driessen, H. Goossens, V. Van Speybroeck, J.M. Winne, F.E. Du Prez, Nat. Chem., 6(9), 815-821, 2014
  • Synthesis of multi-functionalized hydrogels by a thiolactone-based synthetic protocol, S. Reinicke, P. Espeel, M.M. Stamenović, F.E. Du Prez, Polym. Chem., 5, 5461-5470, 2014
  • Collapsing and reswelling kinetics of thermoresponsive polymers on surfaces: a matter of confinement and constraints, N. Willet, S. Gabriel, C. Jérôme, F.E. Du Prez, A-S. Duwez, Soft Matter, 10, 7256-7261, 2014
  • Autonomous self-healing of epoxy thermosets with thiol-isocyanate chemistry, X. Hillewaere, R. Teixeira, L.-T.T. Nguyen, J. Ramos, H. Rahier, F.E. Du Prez, Adv. Funct. Mater., 24, 5575–5583, 2014
  • Control of glycopolymer nanoparticle morphology by a one-pot, double modification procedure using thiolactones, Y. Chen, P. Espeel, S. Reinicke, F.E. Du Prez, M.H. Stenzel, Macromol Rapid Comm., 35, 1128−1134, 2014
  • Cu(0)-mediated polymerization of hydrophobic acrylates using high-throughput experimentation, L. Voorhaar, S. Wallyn, F.E. Du Prez, R. Hoogenboom, Polym. Chem., 5, 4268-4276, 2014
  • Deconvolution of overlapping spectral polymer signals in sizeexclusion separation-diode array detection separations byimplementing a multivariate curve resolution method optimized byalternating least , T. Van Hoeylandt, K. Chen, F.E. Du Prez, F. Lynen, J. Chromatogr. A., 1342, 63–69, 2014
  • One-pot thermo-remendable shape memory polyurethanes, G. Rivero, L.-T.T. Nguyen, X.K.D. Hillewaere, F.E. Du Prez, Macromol., 47, 2010-2018, 2014
  • Preparation of Thiol-Ene Curable, Low Modulus Dry Silicone-Gel Materials, O. van den Berg, L.-T.T. Nguyen, R.F.A. Teixeira, F. Goethals, C. Özdilek, F.E. Du Prez, Macromol., 47, 1292-1300, 2014
  • Diversely Substituted Polyamide Structures through Thiol-Ene Polymerization of Renewable Thiolactone Building Blocks, F. Goethals, S. Martens, P. Espeel, O. van den Berg, F.E. Du Prez, Macromol., 47, 61-69, 2014
  • Straightforward RAFT-Procedure for the Synthesis of Heterotelechelic Poly(acrylamide)s, S. Wallyn, Z. Zhang, F. Driessen, J. Pietrasik, B.G. De Geest, R. Hoogenboom, F.E. Du Prez, Macromol. Rapid. Comm., 35, 405-411, 2014
  • MacroRAFT agents from renewable resources and their use as polymeric scaffolds in a grafting from approach, S. De Smet, S. Lingier, F.E. Du Prez, Polym. Chem, 5, 3163 – 3169, 2014
  • Low Modulus Dry Silicone-Gel Materials by Photoinduced Thiol−Ene Chemistry, O. van den Berg,† L-T T. Nguyen, R.F.A. Teixeira, F. Goethals, C. Özdilek, S. Berghmans, F.E. Du Prez†, Macromol., 47, 1292–1300, 2014


  • Multifunctionalized sequence-defined oligomers from a single building block, P. Espeel, L.L.G. Carrette, K. Bury, S. Capenberghs, F.E. Du Prez, A. Madder, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 52, 1-5, 2013
  • Highly structured pH-responsive honeycomb films by combination of breath figure and in situ thermolysis of polystyrene-block-poly(ethoxy ethyl acrylate) precursor, P. Escalé, W. Van Camp, F.E. Du Prez, L. Rubatat, L. Billon, M. Save, Polym. Chem., 4, 4710-4717, 2013
  • Functionalization of Polyurethanes by Incorporation of Alkyne Side-Groups to Oligodiols and Subsequent Thiol-yne Post-modification, M. Basko, M. Bednarek, L.-T.T. Nguyen, P. Kubisa, F.E. Du Prez, Eur. Polym. J., 49, 3573-3581, 2013
  • Self-assembling linear and star shaped poly(-caprolactone)/poly[(meth)acrylic acid] block copolymers as carriers of indomethacin and quercetin, D. Neugebauer, K. Bury, F.E. Du Prez, Macromol. Biosci., 13, 1520-1530, 2013
  • Kinetic comparison of 13 homogeneous thiol–X reactions, L.-T.T. Nguyen, M.T. Gokmen, F.E. Du Prez, Polym. Chem., 4, 5527-5536, 2013
  • The origin of life as a guide to renewable polyester building blocks, M. Dusselier, P.Van Wouwe, S. De Smet, R. De Clercq, L. Verbelen, P. Van Puyvelde, F.E. Du Prez, B.F. Sels, ACS Catal.,3, 1786−1800, 2013
  • High molar mass segmented macromolecular architectures by nitroxide mediated polymerisation, L. Petton, E.P.C. Mes, H. Van Der Wal, S. Claessens, F. Van Damme, S. Verbrugghe, F.E. Du Prez, Polym. Chem., 4, 4697-4709, 2013
  • One-Pot Double Modification of p(NIPAAm): A Tool for Designing Tailor-Made Multiresponsive Polymers, S. Reinicke, P. Espeel, M.M. Stamenović, F.E. Du Prez, ACS Macro Letters, 2, 539-543, 2013
  • One-pot, Additive-free Preparation of Functionalized Polyurethanes via Amine-thiol-ene Conjugation, P. Espeel, F. Goethals, F. Driessen, L.-T.T. Nguyen, F.E. Du Prez, Polym. Chem., 4, 2449–2456, 2013
  • 100% thiol-functionalized ethylene PMOs prepared by “thiol acid-ene” chemistry, D. Esquivel,O. van den Berg, F.J. Romero-Salguero, F.E. Du Prez, P. Van Der Voort, Chem Comm., 49, 2344-2346, 2013
  • Design of mixed PEO/PAA brushes with switchable properties towards protein adsorption, M.F. Delcroix, G.L. Huet, T. Conard, S. Demoustier-Champagne, F.E. Du Prez, J. Landoulsi, C.C. Dupont-Gillain,Biomacromolecules, 14, 215−225, 2013
  • Chemically orthogonal trifunctional Janus beads by photochemical "sandwich" microcontact printing, T. Kaufmann, C. Wendeln, M.T. Gokmen, S. Rinnen, M. Becker, H.F. Arlinghaus, F.E. Du Prez, B-J. Ravoo, Chem Comm., 49, 63–65, 2013
  • Providing Polyurethane Foams with Functionality: A Kinetic Comparison of Different “Click” and Coupling Reaction Pathways, L.-T.T. Nguyen, J. Devroede, K. Plasschaert, L. Jonckheere, N. Haucourt, F.E. Du Prez, Polym. Chem, 4, 1546-1556, 2013
  • Straightforward synthesis of functionalized cyclic polymers in high yield via RAFT and thiolactone/disulfide chemistry, M.M. Stamenović, P. Espeel, E. Baba, T. Yamamoto, Y. Tezuka, F.E. Du Prez, Polym. Chem., 4, 184-193, 2013
  • Chemistry of crosslinking processes for self-healing polymers, S. Billiet, X.K.D. Hillewaere, R.F.A. Teixeira, F.E. Du Prez, Macromol. Rapid Commun., 34, 290−309, 2013
  • Renewable sulfur-containing thermoplastics via AB-type thiol-ene polyaddition, O.van den Berg, T. Dispinar, B. Hommez, F.E. Du Prez, Eur. Polym., 49, 804-812, 2013
  • Polyurea microcapsules with photocleavable shell: UV-triggered release, T. Dispinar, C.A.L. Colard, F.E. Du Prez, Polym. Chem., 4 (3), 763 - 772, 2013
  • Complexity from Simplicity: Unique Polymer Capsules, Rods, Monoliths and Liquid Marbles Prepared via HIPE-in-Microfluidics, M.T. Gokmen, B. Dereli, B.G. De Geest, F.E. Du Prez, Part. Part. Syst. Charact., 30, 438–444, 2013
  • Polymer networks by ionic association and covalent fixation based on ring opening of cyclic ammonium salts, E.J. Goethals, V. De Vynck, Reactive & Functional Polymers, 73, 283-290, 2013
  • Kinetic Modeling of Radical Thiol-ene Chemistry for Macromolecular Design: Importance of Side Reactions and Diffusional Limitations, P. Derboven, D.R. D’hooge, M.M. Stamenovic, P. Espeel, G.B. Marin, M-F. Reyniers, F.E. Du Prez, Macromol., 46(5), 1732-1742, 2013


  • Multi-Block Polyurethanes via RAFT End-Group Switching and Their Characterization by Advanced Hyphenated Techniques, C. Schmid, J. Falkenhagen, T.F. Beskers, L.-T.T. Nguyen, M. Wilhelm, F.E. Du Prez, C. Barner-Kowollik, Macromolecules, 45, 6353-6362, 2012
  • Highly functionalized, aliphatic polyamides via thiol-yne chemistry, L. Billiet, X.K.D. Hillewaere, F.E. Du Prez, Eur. Polym. J.,48, 2085-2096, 2012
  • From NMP to RAFT and Thiol-Ene Chemistry by In Situ Functionalisation of Nitroxide Chain Ends, L. Petton, A.E. Ciolino, M.M. Stamenović, P. Espeel, F.E. Du Prez, Macromol. Rapid Commun., 33, 1310−1315, 2012
  • Imidazolium End-Functionalized ATRP Polymers as Directing Agents for CNT Dispersion and Confinement, B. Dervaux, F. Meyer,* J-M Raquez, A. Olivier, F.E. Du Prez, P. Dubois, Macromol. Chem. Phys., 213, 1259−1265, 2012
  • Development of optimized autonomous self-healing systems for epoxy materials
    based on maleimide chemistry, S. Billiet, W. Van Camp, X.K.D. Hillewaere, H. Rahier, F.E. Du Prez, Polymer, 53, 2320-2326, 2012
  • Poly(butylene adipate) functionalized with quaternary phosphonium groups as
    potential antimicrobial packaging material, T. Anthierens, L. Billiet, F. Devlieghere, F.E. Du Prez, Innovat. Food Sci. Emerg. Tech., 15, 81-85, 2012
  • Bifunctional Janus beads made by "sandwich" microcontact printing using click chemistry, T. Kaufmann, T.M. Gokmen, S. Rinnen, H.F. Arlinghaus, F.E. Du Prez, B.J. Ravoo, J. Mat. Chem., 22, 6190-6199, 2012
  • Heterogeneous azide–alkyne click chemistry: towards metal-free end products, B. Dervaux, F.E. Du Prez, Chem. Science, 3, 959-966, 2012
  • Redox-Responsive Degradable PEG Cryogels as Potential Cell Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering, T. Dispinar, W. Van Camp, L.J. De Cock, B.G. De Geest, F.E. Du Prez, Macromol. Biosci.,12, 383-394, 2012
  • Porous polymer particles—A comprehensive guide to synthesis, characterization, functionalization and applications, M.T. Gokmen, F.E. Du Prez, Prog Polym Sci, 37, 365-405, 2012
  • Double modular modification of thiolactone-containing polymers: towards polythiols and derived structures, P. Espeel, F. Goethals, M.M. Stamenović, L. Petton, F.E. Du Prez, Polym. Chem, 3, 1007-1015, 2012
  • From One-Pot Stabilisation to In Situ Functionalisation in Nitroxide Mediated Polymerisation: An Efficient Extension towards Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation, L. Petton, A.E. Ciolino, B. Dervaux, F.E. Du Prez, Polym. Chem., 3, 1867-1878, 2012


  • Novel Amphiphilic Mikto-Arm Star-Shaped Copolymers for the Preparation of PLA-Based Nanocarriers, S. Cajot, R. Riva, L. Billiet, F.E. Du Prez, M. Alexandre, P. Lecomte, C. Jérôme, Macromol. Symp., 309/310, 111–122, 2011
  • Supramolecular interactions as a powerful tool for the design of high-performance poly(L-lactide)/carbon nanotube nanocomposites: from melt-processing to rheological, morphological and electrical properties, E. Manfredi, F. Meyer, P. Verge, J.M. Raquez, J.M. Thomassin, M. Alexandre, B. Dervaux, F.E. Du Prez, P. Van Der Voort, C. Jérôme, P. Dubois, J. Mat. Chem., 21, 16190-16196, 2011
  • Poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(L-lactide) diblock copolymer/carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites: LiCl as supramolecular structure-directing agent, F. Meyer, J.M. Raquez, P. Verge, I. Martínez de Arenaza, B. Coto, P. Van Der Voort, E. Meaurio, B. Dervaux, J.R. Sarasua, F.E Du Prez, P. Dubois, Biomacromolecules, 12, 4086−4094, 2011
  • Synthesis of clicked imidazolium-containing biosourced copolymers and application in carbon nanotube dispersion, R. Mincheva, F. Meyer, P. Verge, J.M. Raquez, L. Billiet, F.E. Du Prez, P. Dubois, Macromol Rapid Comm., 32, 1960-1964, 2011
  • Use of endospore-forming bacteria as an active oxygen scavenger in plastic packaging materials, T. Anthierens, P. Ragaert, S. Verbrugghe, A. Ouchchen, B.G. De Geest, B. Noseda, J. Mertens, L. Beladjal, D. De Cuyper, W. Dierickx, F.E. Du Prez, F. Devlieghere, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 12, 594–599, 2011
  • Metal-Free Functionalization of Linear Polyurethanes by Thiol-Maleimide Coupling Reactions, L. Billiet, O. Gok, A.P. Dove, A. Sanyal, F.E. Du Prez, Macromolecules, 44, 7874-7878, 2011
  • Tetrazine-Norbornene click reactions to functionalize degradable polymers derived from lactide, I.A. Barker, D.J. Hall, C.F. Hansell, F.E. Du Prez, R.K. O’Reilly, A.P. Dove, Macromol. Rapid Commun., 32, 1362-1366, 2011
  • Norbornenyl-Based RAFT agents for the preparation of functional polymers via Thiol-Ene chemistry, M.M. Stamenovic, P. Espeel, W. Van Camp, F.E. Du Prez, Macromolecules, 44, 5619-5630, 2011
  • Highly active, thermo-responsive polymeric catalytic system for Reuse in aqueous and organic CuAAC reactions, S. Wallyn, M. Lammens, R.K. O’Reilly, F.E. Du Prez, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem., 49, 2878-2885, 2011
  • Additive-Free Clicking for Polymer Functionalization and Coupling by Tetrazine-Norbornene Chemistry, C.F. Hansell, P. Espeel, M.M. Stamenovic, I.A. Barker, A.P. Dove, F.E. Du Prez, R.K. O’Reilly, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 133, 13828-13831, 2011
  • Revealing the nature of thio-click reactions on the solid phase, M.T. Gokmen, J. Brassinne, R. Arun Prasath, F.E. Du Prez, Chem. Comm., 47, 4652-4654, 2011
  • One-pot multistep reactions based on thiolactones: extending the realm of thiol-ene chemistry in polymer synthesis, P. Espeel, F. Goethals, F.E. Du Prez, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 133, 1678-1681, 2011
  • "Sandwich" Microcontact Printing as a Mild Route towards Monodisperse Janus Particles with Tailored Bifunctionality, T. Kaufmann, T.M. Gokmen, C. Wendeln, M. Schneiders, S. Rinnen, H. Arlinghaus, S. Bon, F.E. Du Prez, B.J. Ravoo, Adv. Mat., 23, 79-83, 2011

  • Combining cationic ring-opening polymerization and click chemistry for the design of functionalized polyurethanes, M. Basko, M. Bednarek, L. Billiet, P. Kubisa, E. Goethals, F.E. Du Prez, J. Polym. Sci, Polym. Chem., 49, 1597–1604, 2011
  • Preparation of pH-sensitive star-shaped aliphatic polyesters as precursors of polymersomes, R. Riva, W. Lazzari, L. Billiet, F. Du Prez, C. Jérôme, P. Lecomte, J. Polym. Sci, Polym. Chem., 49, 1552-1563, 2011

  • Clicking Polymers or Just Efficient Linking: What Makes the Difference?, C. Barner-Kowollik, F.E. Du Prez, P. Espeel, C.J. Hawker, T. Junkers, H. Schlaad, W. Van Camp, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 50, 60-62, 2011


  • P. Espeel, F. Goethals, F.E. Du Prez, "One-pot Double Modification of Polymers based on Thiolactone Chemistry", in "Advances in Polymer Science"
  • P. Espeel, F. Goethals, F.E. Du Prez, ”Thiolactones as Functional Handles for Polymer Synthesis and Modification”, in “Thiol-X chemistries in Polymer and Materials Science”, RSC publishing, ed. Andrew Lowe and Christopher Bowman, 2013 (ISBN: 978-1-84973-660-2)
  • F.E. Du Prez, E. Goethals, R. Hoogenboom, “Cationic polymerizations” in Handbook of Polymer Synthesis, Characterization, and Processing, First Edition. Edited by Enrique Saldivar-Guerra and Eduardo Vivaldo-Lima. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013 (ISBN: 978-0-470-63032-7)
  • R.F.A. Teixeira, X.K.D. Hillewaere, S. Billiet, F.E. Du Prez, “Chemistry of crosslinking processes for self-healing polymers”, in “self-healing polymers: from principles to applications”, Wiley VCH, ed. Wolfgang Binder, 2013 (ISBN: 978-3-527-33439-1)
  • E.J. Goethals, B. Dervaux (2012) ROP of Cyclic Amines and Sulfides. In: Matyjaszewski K and Möller M (eds.) Polymer Science: A Comprehensive Reference, Vol 4, pp. 309–330. Amsterdam: Elsevier BV
  • T.J.A. Loontjens, E.J. Goethals (2012) Chain Extension by Ring Opening. In: Matyjaszewski K and Möller M (eds.) Polymer Science: A Comprehensive Reference, Vol 4, pp. 633–644. Amsterdam: Elsevier BV
  • C. Eisenbach, N. Bulychev, K. Dirnberger, B. Dervaux, F. Du Prez, V. Zubov, "Structure Formation of Adsorption Layers of Ionic-Amphiphilic Copolymers on Inorganic and Organic Pigment Surfaces as studied by ESA" in "Amphiphiles: Molecular Assembly and applications", ACS Symposium Series 1070, Ed. Ramanathan Nagarajan, 2011 (ISBN 978-0-8412-2650-0)
  • W. Van Camp, B. Dervaux, M. Lammens, L. Van Renterghem, F.E. Du Prez, “From Novel block-like copolymers to reactive nanoparticles: ATRP and “click” chemistry” as synthetic tools” (chapter 7) in NATO-book, Ed. E. Khosravi, “New Smart Materials via metal mediated macromolecular engineering”, Springer, 2009 (ISBN 978-90-481-3276-8)
  • D. Fournier, L. Billiet, F.E. Du Prez, “Click chemistry and step-growth polymerization: the ideal combination for the rejuvenation of industrial polymers” (chapter 9) in NATO-book, Ed. E. Khosravi, “New Smart Materials via metal mediated macromolecular engineering”, Springer, 2009 (ISBN 978-90-481-3276-8)
  • M. Lammens, F.E. Du Prez, Highly branched functional polymer architectures by click chemistry strategies in "Complex macromolecular Architectures: Synthesis, characterization and self-assembly",
    Ed. Filip Du Prez, Nikos Hadjichristidis, Yasuyuki Tezuka and Akira Hirao, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim Germany, 2011, (ISBN 978-0-470-82513-6)
  • W. Van Camp, F.E. Du Prez, “Controlled Radical Polymerization of
    1-Ethoxyethyl (Meth)acrylate: Novel Route for the Synthesis of Poly((meth)acrylic acid) Containing Polymer Structures”
    (Chapter 13)
    in “ACS Symposium Book”, volume 944, Ed. K. Matyjaszewski, "Controlled/Living Radical
    Polymerization: From Synthesis to Materials", Wiley VCH, 2006, (ISBN 0-8412-3991-3)
  • W. Loos, F.E. Du Prez, “The sol-gel approach towards thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) hydrogels with improved mechanical properties”
    in “Macromolecular Symposia, Vol. 210, Reactive Polymers”, H. Adler, ed., Wiley VCH, 2004 (ISBN 3-527-31043-6)
  • W. Reyntjens, L. Jonckheere, E. Goethals and F. Du Prez, "Thermosensitive polymer structures based on segmented copolymer networks"
    in “Macromolecular Symposia, Vol. 164, Reactive Polymers”, H. Adler, ed., Wiley VCH, 2003 (ISBN 3-527-30326-x)
  • N. A. Yanul, Y.E. Kirsch, S. Verbrugghe, E.J. Goethals and F.E. Du Prez, “Synthesis and thermo-responsive properties of poly(N-vinyl caprolactam) / polyether segmented networks”
    in “Tailored Polymers & Applications”, Y. Yagci, M.K. Mishra, O. Nuyken, K. Ito, G. Wnek, eds., VSH Publishers, pp. 139-149, 2001 (ISBN 90-6764-326-2)
  • F.E. Du Prez, D. Christova & E.J. Goethals, "Amphiphilic multicomponent polymer networks: design, evaluation and applications"
    in “the Wiley Polymer Networks Group Review Series”, vol. 2, B.T. Stokke, A. Elgsaeter, Eds., John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, UK, pp. 255-270, 2000 (ISBN 0-471-98713-1).
  • F.E. Du Prez & E.J. Goethals, “Segmented polymer networks by cationic polymerization: design and applications”
    in “Cationic Polymerization and Related Processes”, J.E. Puskas, Ed., NATO-ASI Series, Series E, Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, Nederland, pp. 75-98, 1999 (ISBN 0-7923-5811-2).
  • F.E. Du Prez, P. Tan & E.J. Goethals, "PEO/PMMA (Semi-)interpenetrating Polymer Networks: Synthesis and Phase Diagrams"
    in “IPNs around the World: Science and engineering”, S.C. Kim en L.H. Sperling, eds., John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, UK, Chapter 6, pp. 123-137, 1997 (ISBN 0-471-97077-8).


  • EP 19211548.3: “Epoxy-derived covalent adaptable networks and methods of their production” – Inventors: J. Winne, Y. Spiesschaert, C. Taplan, F. Du Prez – Filling date: 26 November 2019
  • EP 19203478.3: “A polymer comprising a unit having a tertiary amine and a pendant carboxyl group, a precursor for such polymer and a method to prepare such polymer or such precursor- Inventors: J. Winne, M. Delahaye, F. Du Prez – Filling date: 16 October 2019
  • WO2019175346A1: “Indole-based compounds” – Inventors: L. Imbernon, J. De Geeter, F. Du Prez, N. Haucourt, D. Laplace, G. Snellings, P. Van Tittelboom, J. Winne – Priority date: 14 March 2018
  • CN108473680A; EP3344682A1; WO2017036525A1; US2018258201A1: “Thiol-acrylate based foam precursor composition” – Inventors: F. Du Prez, O. Turunc – Priority date: 2 September 2015
  • EP3233978A1; WO2016097169A1; US2017327625A1; US10246548B2: “Compositions comprising a polymeric network” – Inventors: F. Du Prez, W. Denissen, J. Winne, L. Leibler, R. Nicolay – Priority date: 19 December 2014
  • EP3030559A1; EP3030559B1; WO2015018928A1; US2016200707A1; US9586935B2: “Urazole compounds” – Inventors: S. Billiet, J. Winne, F. Du Prez – Priority Date: 9 August 2013
  • EP2841490A2; WO13160252A2; US20130287345A1; US8967888B2: “Dry silicone gels and their methods of making them by using thiol-ene chemistry” – Inventors: O. Van den Berg, S. Berghmans, F. Du Prez – Priority Date: 25 April 2012
  • EP2522684A1; EP2522685A2; EP2522685A3; US2012289621A1; US8901180B2: “Method for functionalising a thermoset isocyanate-based polymeric solid material” – Inventors: L. Jonckeere, F. Du Prez, T. Nguyen – Priority date: 12 May 2011
  • BR112013028982A2; CN103687884A; CN103687884B; EP2707409A2; EP2707409B1; ES2534975T3; KR20140039219A; KR101919176B1; SG194760A1; WO2012154393A2; WO2012154393A3; US2014058037A1; US9644097B2: Stabilizer polymerization process and process for making polymer polyols – Inventors: F. Du Prez, L. Petton, F. Van Damme, J.P. Masy, E. Mes, H. R. Van der Wal, S. Verbrugghe – Priority date: 12 May 2011
  • EP2697286A2; WO2012140194A2; WO2012140194A3; US2014039081A1: “Sulphur-containing thermoplastic polymers” – Inventors: F. Du Prez, O. Vandenbergh, S. Verbrugghe– Priority date: 14 April 2011
  • AU2009295886A1; AU2016200258A1; AU2016200258B2; BRPI0913683A2; CA2738602A1; CN102369105A; EA201100533A1; EP2352641A1; EP3508342A1; WO2010034776A1; JP2012503473A; KR20110098996A; KR20170017001A; KR101764592B1; MX2011003048A; MX348019B; US2011217758A1: “Incorporation of thermo-resistant and/or pressure-resistant organisms in materials” – Inventors: J. Mertens, L. Beladjal, F. Devlieghere, S. Verbrugghe, F. Du Prez, T. Anthierens, A. Ouchen – Priority date: 24 September 2008
  • EP2009039A1; EP2164888A2; EP2164888B1; WO2009000892A2; WO2009000892A3; ES2396174T3; US2010234482A1; US8889799B2: “Functionalised polyurethanes” – Inventors: F. Du Prez, D. Fournier – Priority date: 27 June 2007
  • EP2090592A1: “Biodegradable gels based on click chemistry” – Inventors: B. De Geest, F Du Prez, W. E. Hennink, W. Van Camp – Priority date: 31 July 2007
  • WO2006002496A1; EP1776399A1; EP1776399B1; JP2008504411A; US2013096268A1; US2008262160A1: “Monodisperse polymers containing (alkyl)acrylic acid moieties, precursors and methods for making them and their applications” – Inventors: F. Du Prez, W. Van Camp, S. Bon – Priority date: 1 July 2004


Some PhD-theses are available on the website of the UGent Library.

(D = Dutch, E = English):

  • Yann Spiesschaert: "Vinylogous urethane vitrimers - Towards a closed recycling loop for thermoset materials" (E) (2020)
  • Stef Vandewalle: "Macromolecular functionalization and coupling : from permanent to dynamic linking" (E) (2020)
  • Maarten Delahaye: "Recyclable polymer networks based on internally catalysed exchange reactions" (E) (2020)
  • Niels Van Herck: "Towards sustainable dynamic polymer materials - from self-healing to reprocessability" (E) (2020)
  • Maarten Delahaye: "Recyclable polymer networks based on internally catalysed exchange reactions" (E) (2020)
  • Joshua Holloway: "From sequence-defined macromolecules to macromolecular pin codes" (E) (2019)
  • Steven Martens: "Amine-thiolactone-ene conjugation : from polymer modification to sequence-controlled polymers" (E) (2019)
  • Laetitia Vlaminck: "Triazolinedione building blocks: their sustainable synthesis and macromolecular implementation" (E) (2019)
  • Daniel Frank: "Thiolactone derivatives : from bio-based building blocks towards sustainable materials" (E) (2018)
  • Benjamin Hendriks: "Self-crosslinking resins and vitrimers based on thiol-ene chemistry" (E) (2018)
  • Sophie Lingier: "Polycycloacetals from renewable resources" (E) (2017)
  • Kevin De Bruycker: "Where small molecules and polymer materials meet: triazolinedione chemistry at the interface" (E) (2017)
  • Cristina Resetco: "Multifunctional polymer materials based on sustainable thiolactone building blocks" (E) (2017)
  • Remi Absil: "From microparticles to injectable hydrogels : the role of click coupling" (E) (2017)
  • Frank Driessen: "Functional and amphiphilic copolymers by means of copper-mediated polymerization" (E) (2017)
  • Wim Denissen: "Vitrimers based on vinylogous acyl exchange reactions" (E) (2017)
  • Stijn Billiet: "Triazolinediones for the development of a versatile click chemistry platform applied in polymer science" (E) (2016)
  • Sanne De Smet: "Synthesis of segmented polymer structures based on renewable resources" (E) (2016)
  • Xander Hillewaere: "Thiol-based chemistries for extrinsic self-healing thermosets" (E) (2015)
  • Sofie Wallyn: "Versatile synthesis of functional hyperbranched polymers by combination of CRP and Thiol-X chemistry" (E) (2015)
  • Fabienne Goethals: "Multistep reactions based on thiolactones for the synthesis of functionalized polymers" (E) (2015)
  • Michel De Keersmaecker: "The development of an environmentally friendly coating for the corrosion inhibition of lead objects" (E) (2015)
  • Milan Stamenovic: "Complex polymer architectures by combination of RAFT and post-polymerization methods" (E) (2013)
  • Lionel Petton: "Design and Evaluation of Novel Types of Polymeric Dispersants" (E) (2012)
  • Tuğba Dişpinar: "Cryogels and polymeric microcapsules with triggered degradation and release" (E) (2012)
  • M. Talha Gokmen: "Complex Polymer Particles via Microfluidics" (E) (2011).
  • Leen Billiet: "Functionalization of step-growth polymers by click chemistries" (E) (2011)
  • Mieke Lammens: "Highly Functionalized Star-shaped Polymer Structures via Click Chemistry Design" (E) (2011).
  • Bart Dervaux: "Gradient versus block copolymers via atom transfer radical polymerization: continuous preparation via column reactors and comparison of structure property relations en vergelijking van structuur-eigenschapsrelaties" (E) (2010).
  • Lies Bonami: "New types of metal complexing polymer structures based on polyamines: synthesis and evaluation" (E) (2010).
  • Ondine Confortini: "Thermo-responsive graft copolymers based on poly(methyl vinyl ether): from synthesis to evaluation" (E) (2009).
  • Els Eeckhout: "Synthesis and evaluation of supramolecular polymer structures based on cyclodextrine containing polyrotaxanes" (D) (2008).
  • Wim Van Camp: " Novel Routes for the Design of Poly((meth)acrylic acid) Containing Polymer Structures by Controlled Radical Polymerization" (E) (2007).
  • Lieven Van Renterghem: "Star-shaped polymer structures with reactive end groups for the preparation of a new type of nanoparticles" (D) (2007).
  • Jan Heijl: “Fast stimuli-responsive polymer materials from ultrathin hydrogels"  (D+E) (2006).
  • Katrien Bernaerts: “Advanced polymer architectures with stimuli-responsive properties starting from heterofunctional initiators” (2006).
  • Laura Jonckheere: "Development of tailor-made, crosslinked polymer structures as supports of organometal complexes". (D) (2005)
  • Wouter Lequieu: "Segmented polymer networks and modified track etched membranes: new materials for thermo-controllable membrane processes". (D) (2005)
  • Wouter Loos: "Design of thermo-responsive hybrid hydrogels via the sol-gel process". (D) (2005)
  • Beatrice Verdonck: "Design of thermo-responsive polymer surfactants based on poly(methyl vinyl ether)". (D) (2004)
  • Kris Vidts: "Design of block copolymer structures for the control of physico-chemical properties of nanodispersions". (D) (2004)
  • Peggy Van De Velde: "Development and evaluation of new polymer architectures as pervaporation membranes". (2004)
  • Filip Vanhaecke: "Smelt-functionalisatie van isotactisch polypropyleer met cyclische onverzadigde dicarbonzuuranhydrides". (D)(2003)
  • Sam Verbrugghe: "Development of ‘intelligent' polymer architectures based on poly(N-vinyl caprolactam)". (D)(2003)
  • Kathelijne Cosaert: “Evaluation of positron annihilation life time spectroscopy for the research towards free volume properties of polymer materials” (D)(2003)